Aspazija

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NameAspazija
Additional namesElza Rozenberga, Elza Pliekšāne, Rozenvalde
PseudonymKalna Elza
Name at birthJohanna Emīlija Lizete Rozenberga
SummaryAspazija (Elza Johanna Emilija Lizete Pliekšāne,1865 – 1943), a poet and playwright. In her plays she reflected upon woman's struggle against prejudice and her right to self-determination. Together with her husband – poet and playwright Rainis, they are now considered among the most influential figures in Latvian culture.
Personal informationAspazija was born and raised in a wealthy peasant family near Jelgava.
1874: she began her studies at the Zaļās muižas Parish School.
She continued her studies at Dorothea Girls' School in Jelgava and at the Trinity Women's Gymnasium.
1886: she married Maksis Vilhelms Valters, who later fled to America (they were divorced in February 1897).
1889: she moved to Jelgava.
1891-93: she worked as a home–teacher in Jaunsvirlaukas, Ķiploki, Pociema Ķaukuļi and Drieliņu manor.
1893-95: she worked as a theater playwright at Riga Latvian Society.
1897: her first collection of poems "Sarkanās Puķes" (The Red Flowers) was published, and she met Jānis Pliekšāns (Rainis), a newspaper editor, poet, lawyer, and a leader of the New Current movement (Jaunā strāva). After the collapse of the movement, Rainis fled to Lithuania, and they married there.
1898–1903: Aspazija worked for the newspaper "Dienas Lapa" and frequently visited Rainis in exile in Slobodskoy, Russia. Together they translated works of Goethe into Latvian.
During the 1905 Revolution: Aspazija actively participated in socio-political events, and her play "Sidraba šķidrauts" (Silver Veil) became a symbol of the Latvian national intellectual awakening.
1905–20: Aspazija and Rainis moved to Lugano, Switzerland to escape political persecution after the 1905 Revolution.
1920: after return to Latvia, Aspazija joined the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party and was elected to the constitutional assembly, where she advocated for women's rights.
1929: after Rainis' death, she arranged and published his literary heritage.
WorkAspazija wrote her first poems at the age of 14 in German, greatly inspired by the German tradition in writing.
1887: the first publication – poem "Jaunā gadā" (In the New Year) in the newspaper Dienas Lapa, published by her pen name Aspazija.
1891–1893: she wrote her first plays.

Plays

1933: Velna nauda [The Devil's Dime].
1932: Pūcesspieģelis [Owlglass].
1931: Jānis Ziemelis [Janis Ziemelis]. A play, published in periodicals.
1928: Zalša līgava [The Sea Serpent's Bride].
1927: Torņa cēlājs [The Tower Builder].
1925: Boass un Rute [Boas and Rute].
1923: Aspazija [Aspasia].
1903/1905: Sidraba šķidrauts [The Silver Veil].
1901: Zeltīte [Goldie].
1895: Neaizsniegts mērķis [A Goal Unattained].
1895: Ragana [The Witch].
1894: Zaudētās tiesības [The Lost Rights].
1894: Vaidelote [The Priestess].
1887: Atriebēja [Woman's Revenge].

Poetry

1942: Zem vakara zvaigznes [Under the Evening Star].
1936: Kaisītās rozes [The Petals of Roses].
1933: Dvēseles ceļojums [Journey of a Soul].
1928: Asteru laikā [When Asters Bloom].
1926: Trejkrāsaina saule [The Tricolour Sun].
1923: Raganu nakts [The Night of the Witches].
1920: Izplesti spārni [Spread Wings].
1911: Ziedu klēpis [Lapful of Flowers].
1910: Saulainais stūrītis [The Corner of Sunshine].
1904: Dvēseles krēsla [The Dawn of a Soul].
1897: Sarkanās puķes [The Red Flowers].

Prose

1944: Zila debess zelta mākoņos [Blue Skies in Gilded Clouds].
1933: Rudens lakstīgala [The Autumn Nightingale] published in periodicals.
1928: Zelta mākoņi [Gilded Clouds].
1924: Zila debess [Blue Skies].
1919: No atzīšanas koka [From the Tree of Knowledge].

Translations

1921: Rainis. Joseph und seine Brüder [Joseph and His Brothers].
1903-04: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Writings, Vol. 1 – 7, together with Rainis.
1900: Robert Hamerling, Aspasia: A Romance of Art and Love in Ancient Hellas (Aspasia: Ein Künstler- und Liebesroman aus Alt-Hellas).
1899: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Quo vadis.


Quotations"Aspazija is one of the most distinguished and controversial personalities in Latvian culture. Her work plays an important role in the modernization of Latvian writing and in stimulating intellectual discussion about the human existence and meaning of life."

Ausma Cimdiņa. Priekšvārds. Aspazijas Kopoti Raksti 1. sējums. R.: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2017, 7.


"During the 1905 Revolution, Aspazija's play Sidraba šķidrauts (Silver Veil) became a symbol of the Latvian national intellectual awakening. The plays Zaudētās tiesības (The Lost Rights) and Neaizsniegts mērķis (A Goal Unattained) provoked many discussions because of their critical stance against patriarchal society."

http://www.latvianliterature.lv/en/writers/110
LinksUldis Freimanis - Radinieks
Dāvids Freimanis - Cousin
Rainis - Husband
Occupationspoet
play writer
Birth time/place16.03.1865
Daukšas
"Daukšas", Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads, LV-3011
Residence1865–1889
Daukšas
"Daukšas", Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads, LV-3011

1889
Jelgava
Jelgava

In 1889 the family moved to Jelgava and bought a small house there.


1893–1897
Rīga
Rīga

00.03.1897
Paņeveža
Panevėžys, Panevėžys County, Lithuania

When Rainis got a job as a lawyer in Panevezys, Aspazija moved there.


1898–1903
Slobodska
Slobodskoy, Kirov Oblast, Russia

1898–1903
Rīga
Rīga

1898–1903
Pleskava
Pskov, Pskov Oblast, Russia

00.12.1905–00.04.1920
Kastanjola
Castagnola, Ticino, Switzerland

1920–1933
Rīga
Rīga

1933–1943
Dubulti
Priedaine, Jūrmala
Education1874
Zaļāsmuižas pagastskola
Zaļenieki
Zaļenieki, Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads

1874–1878
Jelgavas Dorotejas meiteņu skola
Jelgava
Jelgava

1878–1884
Jelgavas Trīsvienības sieviešu ģimnāzija
Jelgava
Jelgava

There is no exact information about graduation. In recollections, Aspazija repeatedly have said that she left school without finishing her final exams because of her grandfather's funeral.

Working place1891–1893
Jaunsvirlauka
Jaunsvirlauka , Jaunsvirlaukas pagasts, Jelgavas novads

Home–teacher


1892–1893
Pociems
Pociems, Katvaru pagasts, Limbažu novads

Home–teacher


1892–1893
Pāles pagasts
Pāles pagasts, Limbažu novads

Home–teacher


00.10.1893–1895
Rīgas Latviešu teātris
Merķeļa iela 13, Rīga
Merķeļa iela 13, Rīga, LV-1050

Playwright


1897–1903
Laikraksts "Dienas Lapa"
Rīga
Rīga
Emigrated00.12.1905–00.04.1920
Kastanjola
Castagnola, Ticino, Switzerland

Together with Rainis, she went to exile in Switzerland.

Travelled1896
Berlīne
Berlin, Germany

In early 1897, due to the death of Rainis' eldest sister, they returned to Jelgava.

Place/time of death05.11.1943
Rīga
Rīga
BuriedRaiņa kapi
Aizsaules iela 1, Rīga, LV-1026
Memorials1972
Kastanjola
Castagnola, Ticino, Switzerland

Castagnola city council built a monument (G. Chiesa) dedicated to Latvian writers Rainis and Aspazija.


1990
Horna dārzs, Jūrmala
Jomas iela 35, Jūrmala, LV-2015

Monument "Rainis and Aspazija", created by sculptors Zigrīda–Džoana Rapa un Juris Rapa.


1995
Aspazijas māja
Zigfrīda Meierovica prospekts 18/20, Jūrmala
Zigfrīda Meierovica prospekts 18/20, Jūrmala, LV-2015

A memorial plaque and a sculptural group "Cat Post" created by sculptor Jānis Bārda in memory of Aspazija.


2009
Aspazijas māja
Zigfrīda Meierovica prospekts 18/20, Jūrmala
Zigfrīda Meierovica prospekts 18/20, Jūrmala, LV-2015

Monument "Aspazija" created by sculptor Arta Dumpe.

MuseumsDaukšas
"Daukšas", Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads, LV-3011

Raiņa un Aspazijas māja
Baznīcas iela 30, Rīga
Baznīcas iela 30, Rīga, LV-1010

Raiņa un Aspazijas vasarnīca
Jāņa Pliekšāna iela 5/7, Jūrmala
Jāņa Pliekšāna iela 5/7, Jūrmala, LV-2015

Aspazijas māja
Zigfrīda Meierovica prospekts 18/20, Jūrmala
Zigfrīda Meierovica prospekts 18/20, Jūrmala, LV-2015

Raiņa un Aspazijas muzejs Lugano
Lugano
Lugano, Canton of Ticino, Switzerland
RewardsRīgas Latviešu biedrības prēmija
Prēmija piešķirta par J. V. Gētes darba "Fausts" tulkojumu (1901).
1901

Rīgas Latviešu biedrības prēmija
1910

Rīgas Latviešu biedrības prēmija
1912

The Order of Three Stars
Triju Zvaigžņu ordeņa komandiere ar Domes 1926. gada 16. novembra lēmumu.
III šķira
1926

Kultūras fonda prēmija
Asteru laikā
Prēmija piešķirta par dzejoļu krājumu "Asteru laikā".
Literatūra
1928

Atzinības krusts
II šķira
1938

The Fatherland's Award
1939



Showing 1-20 of 32 items.
#LocationDateTypeType of location
  
1Daukšas
("Daukšas", Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads, LV-3011)
16.03.1865Farmstead
2Daukšas
("Daukšas", Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads, LV-3011)
1865 - 1889Farmstead
3Jelgava
(Jelgava)
1889City
4Paņeveža
(Panevėžys, Panevėžys County, Lithuania)
01.03.1897City
5Slobodska
(Slobodskoy, Kirov Oblast, Russia)
1898 - 1903City
6Rīga
(Rīga)
1898 - 1903City
7Pleskava
(Pskov, Pskov Oblast, Russia)
1898 - 1903City
8Rīga
(Rīga)
1920 - 1933City
9Dubulti
(Priedaine, Jūrmala)
1933 - 1943Part of a city
10Kastanjola
(Castagnola, Ticino, Switzerland)
01.12.1905 - 01.04.1920Village
11Rīga
(Rīga)
1893 - 1897City
12Rīga
(Rīga)
05.11.1943City
13Kastanjola
(Castagnola, Ticino, Switzerland)
01.12.1905 - 01.04.1920Village
14Raiņa kapi
(Aizsaules iela 1, Rīga, LV-1026)
(not set)Cemetery
15Zaļenieki
(Zaļenieki, Zaļenieku pagasts, Jelgavas novads)
1874Village
16Jelgava
(Jelgava)
1874 - 1878City
17Jelgava
(Jelgava)
1878 - 1884City
18Jaunsvirlauka
(Jaunsvirlauka , Jaunsvirlaukas pagasts, Jelgavas novads)
1891 - 1893Village
19Pociems
(Pociems, Katvaru pagasts, Limbažu novads)
1892 - 1893Village
20Pāles pagasts
(Pāles pagasts, Limbažu novads)
1892 - 1893Parish

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